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Making a will

Who should make a will?
If you care about what happens to your property after you die, you should make a will. Without one, the State directs who inherits, so your friends, favourite charities and relatives may get nothing.

It is particularly important to make a will if you are not married or are not in a registered civil partnership (a legal arrangement that gives same-sex partners the same status as a married couple). This is because the law does not automatically recognise cohabitants (partners who live together) as having the same rights as husbands, wives and civil partners. As a result, even if you’ve lived together for many years, your cohabitant may be left with nothing if you have not made a will.

A will is also vital if you have children or dependants who may not be able to care for themselves. Without a will there could be uncertainty about who will look after or provide for them if you die.

Your solicitor can also advise you on how inheritance tax affects what you own.

You should also consider taking legal advice about making a will if:


Once you have had a will drawn up, some changes to your circumstances – for example, marriage, civil partnership, separation, divorce or if your civil partnership is dissolved (legally ended) – can make all or part of that will invalid or inadequate. This means that you must review your will regularly, to reflect any major life changes. A solicitor can tell you what changes may be necessary to update your will.


When a person dies, someone has to deal with their affairs. This is called ‘administering the estate’.

If the person who has died leaves a will


If there is no will

Some more legal terms you may come across

Personal representatives (PRs)
This means executors or administrators. If there is more than one personal representative they must work together to decide matters between them. Disagreements between personal representatives can cause expensive delays.

Grants of representation
This includes grants of probate (when there is a will) and grants of letters of administration (when there is no will). Often people just refer to probate even if there is no will.

When a grant of representation is needed

However, some financial organisations may require a grant before giving you access even to a small amount of money. Usually, a grant of representation will be needed when the person who has died left:

Conveyancing (transfer of land) in Northern Ireland

Solicitors are practising lawyers and officers of the Courts. Under the Solicitors Northern Ireland Order 1976 solicitors in Northern Ireland oversee the legal process involved in the transfer of land.

Solicitors (including Campbell and Haughey Solicitors Ltd, Lurgan) are regulated by this statute and the Law Society of Northern Ireland. Solicitors are subject to spot checks by the Law Society on their management of client monies and are obligated to undergo an annual independent audit of  accounts and disclosure is made to the Law Society of any accounting irregularities. Solicitors have to annually pay a contribution to a compensation fund which is used when solicitors commit fraud or become bankrupt. This fund has made sure no client in Northern Ireland has ever lost money as a result of a solicitors fraud or insolvency.

In Northern Ireland estate agents find the buyer and agree price details, contracts for the sale and purchase of land must be in writing. These contracts are documents drawn up by the solicitor and because the process involves large sums of money, a solicitor act for sellers and buyers to advise and protect their respective interests.

Conveyancing procedures involve the preparation of a contract by the sellers solicitor and the examination of the contract and the title (ownership) documents by the buyers solicitor prior to signature. The seller is obligated to disclose all his knowledge about the property but the buyer carries responsibility for buying the property in its current physical condition.

Choosing a Solicitor

Conveyancing is complex legal work. In Northern Ireland fees charged for the conveyancing of residential property are subject to a competitive marketplace. Some tips are:

If a firm passes the above tests don’t quibble if the professional fees are a few pounds (rather than hundreds of pounds) more.

Whether you are a first time buyer, moving up the property ladder, buying/selling a home or land and you would like to discuss your options, get in touch with us, visit Campbell and Haughey Solicitors Ltd, Lurgan contact page or leave your details and we will call you.

A solicitor is responsible not only to his seller client but also to the seller’s lender who must be paid off the entirety of the existing loan. Similarly a solicitor for a buyer is also legally responsible to the lender providing the new mortgage money and has to report to that lender on behalf of and at the expense of the buyer.

Home Charter Scheme (view further info >>)
The Law Society of Northern Ireland has a compulsory kite mark quality scheme to set standards of quality of work by solicitors. The Home Charter Scheme is a Law Society initiative to ensure that the public can have confidence in their solicitors in property transactions.  It sets standards of practice and transparency to which practitioners must adhere.   Any deviation from the guidelines is punishable and members of the scheme must be compliant.  As a consequence the public can have confidence that the transaction will be conducted with competence and that the remuneration will be fair.

The reason for Land Registration is to have a public record of the ownership of land; the two systems presently operating in Northern Ireland are different ways of recording that information.

Registry of Deeds
Under this system your Solicitor prepares a summary of the document transferring ownership to you and, if applicable, also of your mortgage document. The summary is retained by the Registry of Deeds as a record of your ownership while the actual transfer document is returned to your Solicitor to be placed with all the other Documents of Title.

Land Registry
Here, the actual transfer deed is submitted to the Land Registry and retained there. The Land Registry has a file for every piece of land registered there and on that file your ownership is recorded. As proof of ownership, the Land Registry issues a Land Certificate which gives details of the property, the ownership and other related matters such as mortgages. After each transaction has been recorded the Land Certificate is returned to your Solicitor to be placed with the other Documents of Title.

Compulsory Registration
Northern Ireland registry of Deeds properties is compulsory registration resulting in a double registration process, first in the Registry of Deeds, and then in the Land Registry which costs buyers in these areas more expense.
As far as buyers are concerned the most important difference is that the Registry of Deeds process is considerably cheaper but it is being phased out.

The making of proper Searches is a vital part of the legal investigations into whether there is clear title (ownership) of the property you wish to buy.

Statutory Charges Register
This is a central register for a number of different government matters affecting land, known as Statutory Charges. These include charges in favour of local authorities under the Public Health Acts, notices under the Road Acts, listed buildings and many other things. A Statutory Charge registered before a buyer is registered as owner takes priority over the legal transfer to the buyer.

Judgments Office
This Search will show if there are any court cases pending which may affect the property, crown judgments or judgments for rates.

Companies Office
When buying from a company, the Register of Charges must always be searched to ensure that the Company can give good title to the buyer.

Bankruptcy Office
When a person is adjudged bankrupt he has no power to transfer land to a buyer, so a search must be made to make sure the seller is not bankrupt.

Registry of Deeds and Land Registry Searches
These searches are carried out in the government title registries to show any matters which have been registered against the title during the seller’s ownership of the property. They will reveal, for example, if the seller has taken a second mortgage.

Property Certificates
The sellers solicitor has to provide property certificates to the buyers solicitor. These certificates provide up to date information about the property.

The Department of the Environment Property Certificates confirms such matters, as whether there are any proposals for road works which may affect the property, whether there are public sewers and water mains available to serve the property, and whether the property has been the subject of a planning application.

The local council Property Certificates reveals whether there have been any notices affecting the property in relation to Building Control Approval or enforcement, if there are any orders or notices against the property under Environmental Health legislation and whether the property is affected by any legal proceedings taken by the local council.

Buyer’s Solicitors Job
A quick list of tasks for the buyer’s Solicitor in Northern Ireland are:

Buying, selling or remortgaging all involve expense. If you have bought or sold a property previously you probably have some knowledge of the expenses involved. If you need refreshing this web page will remind you of some of the fees that estate agents, solicitors, lenders, etc. may charge.

This section explains in detail the property selling process including the particular legalities unique to Northern Ireland. We have arranged the topics in the order we think may be useful but you can look at them in whatever order you wish.

Allow for the following costs in compiling your budget:


Solicitors Fees
Solicitors in Northern Ireland charge fees accordingly to the purchase price of the house (to reflect the responsibility and insurance risk assumed) and the amount of time and effort required. In addition Value Added Tax (currently 15%) and additional expenses such as stamp duty tax, searches, property certificates and registration fees have to be added. A solicitor charges two separate fees for a sale and a purchase and price quotations should be requested prior to engagement. Fees quoted will vary considerably.

Written Terms of Business
Solicitors are required by the Law Society of Northern Ireland at the start of a residential conveyancing transaction to give you a written estimate of fees or how they will be calculated together with likely expenses. Beware of verbal quotes!


A Solicitors bill can be disputed either on the basis of a specific arrangement or under legislation governing the way Solicitors are allowed to charge. Solicitors are strictly regulated by the Law Society of Northern Ireland and have to keep records of every meeting, telephone call and letter. If a Solicitor significantly overcharges, or is in serious delay, he can be liable to penalties, disciplinary action and public embarrassment. In relation to any bill you can ask the Solicitor to obtain a certificate of fairness from the Law Society of Northern Ireland; this review is free. Alternatively you can require the Solicitor to prove any bill in the High Court; the expense of this review would have to be paid by yourself unless the bill is reduced by more than a sixth.

Legal Extras on Buying
When buying a property there are various payments which have to be paid on your behalf in addition to the Solicitors fee:

Value Added Tax
VAT is a tax on the purchase of goods and services and is currently 15%. This will be charged on Solicitors fees and will be included in some other expenditure.
Stamp Duty
Stamp Duty, which is a government tax on the purchase price of a property, is as follows:

Please note that as of 30th November 2001 the government has abolished the payment of Stamp Duty in certain designated areas. If your proposed purchase property falls within one of the designated areas and your purchase price is not more than £150,000 you will be exempt from the payment of Stamp Duty. However under the Finance Act 2003 you will still be obliged to complete a Stamp Duty Land Tax Return and notify the Inland Revenue of the transaction before registration of your title can take place.

You can make a provisional check on the HM Customs and Revenue website to see if the property is likely to be exempt from Stamp Duty. Visit this site and enter the post code of the property you wish to buy. The results will display advising if the property is in an exempt area or not.

Please note that in some instances the Inland Revenue may advise incorrectly that a property is exempt and in these cases you will still be liable to pay the duty required. It is therefore advisable to always budget for the possibility of Stamp Duty when buying a house over £125,000.

Land Registers Fees
Registry of Deeds – under this system of registration your Solicitor prepares a synopsis of both your purchase document and your mortgage document and lodges those copies into the registry with a registration fee paid to the government on your behalf of £13 per document. About 50% of all transactions in Northern Ireland are under this system all Registry of Deeds properties in Northern Ireland are now subject to compulsory land registration which adds a further £85.00 to the costs expended.    A solicitor may also charge an additional fee in these cases for the extra work involved.

Land Registry - under this system of registration fees are charged on a purchase in accordance with the following scale (mortgages are usually an extra £50.00 on top):



Various Searches
Bankruptcy and Court Judgment Searches against the buyer for the lender will cost between £35 to £75 depending on whether there is one or two buyers.

Searches in the Registry of Deeds after registration on completion are necessary to bring searches up to date usually cost around £35.

Helping Motorists in Northern Ireland

We might not all be fans of ‘Top Gear’ but a large number of us depend on our cars. Consequently, accidents requiring repairs to our vehicles can cause considerable inconvenience. If you have had your vehicle damaged by the negligent driving of another party, we can often reduce the stress by arranging repairs and providing hire during the period that your car is under repair or your claim is being handled if beyond repair. We also provide a full claims service for any injury or loss of earnings arising from the accident. We provide our mobile numbers to our clients to assist as they often require out of hours service in the immediate aftermath of an accident and sometimes support with statements to police and insurers.

Get in touch with Campbell and Haughey Solicitors, Lurgan:
Telephone028 3832 5335

85 William Street
Co. Armagh
BT66 6JB

Marriage or Relationship difficulties?

If your marriage or relationship with your partner has run into difficulty it is important that during such an emotionally vulnerable time that you do not lose or give up your legal rights. Those rights could include financial arrangements, property and access or custody of children.

Most marriages or relationships have their ups and downs but where the breakdown has become or looks as if it will become irreparable then it could be time to see a solicitor.


When You See a Solicitor
If you decide you need to visit a Solicitor, you can get in touch with Campbell and Haughey Solicitors Ltd, we will advise you on whether you qualify for Legal Aid.

Campbell and Haughey Solicitors will advise you on whether or not you require maintenance for yourself and whether or not you should go to the Magistrate’s Court or High Court. You may be able to sign a separation agreement and not go to court. Campbell and Haughey Solicitors will also advise you about maintenance for children and the Child Support Agency. If you are not married, your rights are very different and we will advise you of these.

If you can sort out arrangements for your children yourself, the Court in general will not interfere with your decision. If you cannot decide yourselves, you may wish to attend Family Mediation. If you need to go to court, Campbell and Haughey Solicitors will advise you about residence and contact orders. Again if you are not married your rights may be very different and you should seek advice.

Divorce or Judicial Separation
If your marriage has irretrievably broken down and you can show one or more of five legal reasons why this is so, you may apply for a divorce. If you do not wish to preceed for divorce you may wish to apply for judicial separation.

Financial Matters
Campbell and Haughey Solicitors will advise you about all money matters arising out of the breakdown of your relationship. If you are not married your rights and entitlement will be very different to that of married people. Campbell and Haughey Solicitors will advise you about division of your house, belongings, savings, pension and all other money matters arising out of the breakdown of your relationship.

Before beginning the legal process, have you explored all outcomes?
Should you feel that your marriage or relationship is still rescuable the following organisations can offer help and can be approached before beginning the legal process.


Campbell and Haughey Solicitors Ltd
Family Law is the preserve of our solicitor/advocate Paul Lenehan.  We will undertake defence in criminal work, care proceedings, occupation and non-molestation orders, divorce and ancillary relief.  The rapid expansion in these areas is a testimony to the energy, ability and sympathetic attitude of Paul whose affable disposition makes him so suitable for such sensitive work.
Telephone028 3832 5335

85 William Street
Co. Armagh
BT66 6JB